19th Century

Vintage: Historic views of Melbourne (1800s)

Vintage: Historic views of Melbourne (1800s)

The decade of the 1880s was one of extraordinary growth, when consumer confidence, easy access to credit, and steep increases in the price of land, led to an enormous amount of construction. This ‘land boom’ was followed by a severe economic crash in the early 1890s which lasted until the end of the century. During the boom, Melbourne had reputedly…
Vintage: historic photos of Hamburg, Germany in the late 19th Century

Vintage: historic photos of Hamburg, Germany in the late 19th Century

Hamburg adopted in 1860 a democratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males. Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation (1866–1871) and of the German…
Vintage: historic views of Breslau in the late 19th Century

Vintage: historic views of Breslau in the late 19th Century

Breslau became part of the German Empire in 1871, which was established at Versailles in defeated France. The early years were characterized by rapid economic growth, the so-called Gründerzeit, although Breslau was hampered by protectionist policies of its natural markets in Austria-Hungary and Russia and had to turn to the German domestic market. Breslau’s population grew from 208,000 in 1871…
Historic B&W photos of Moscow, Russia in the 19th Century

Historic B&W photos of Moscow, Russia in the 19th Century

In the 1830s, general Alexander Bashilov planned the first regular grid of city streets north from Petrovsky Palace. Khodynka field south of the highway was used for military training. Smolensky Rail station (forerunner of present-day Belorussky Rail Terminal) was inaugurated in 1870. Sokolniki Park, in the 18th century the home of the tsar’s falconers well outside of Moscow, became contiguous…
Historic B&W photos of Chicago (19th century)

Historic B&W photos of Chicago (19th century)

In the 19th century, Chicago became the nation’s railroad center, by 1910 over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of 6 different downtown terminals. In 1883, the standardized system of North American time zones was adopted by the general time convention of railway managers in Chicago. This gave the continent its uniform system for telling time.
Historic B&W photos of Vienna, Austro-Hungary (19th Century)

Historic B&W photos of Vienna, Austro-Hungary (19th Century)

In 1804, during the Napoleonic Wars, Vienna became the capital of the Austrian Empire and continued to play a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Vienna remained the capital of what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city was a centre of classical music, for…
Historic B&W photos of Tunis, Tunisia, late 19th Century

Historic B&W photos of Tunis, Tunisia, late 19th Century

During the later 19th century, Tunis became increasingly populated by Europeans, particularly the French, and immigration dramatically increased the size of the city. This resulted in the first demolition of the old city walls, from 1860, to accommodate growth in the suburbs. The city spilled outside the area of the earlier town and the banks of the lake, and the…
Historic B&W photos of Venice, Italy (19th century)

Historic B&W photos of Venice, Italy (19th century)

Venice became Austrian territory when Napoleon signed the Treaty of Campo Formio on 12 October 1797. The Austrians took control of the city on 18 January 1798. It was taken from Austria by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon’s Kingdom of Italy, but was returned to Austria following Napoleon’s defeat in 1814, when it became…
Historic B&W photos of Kiev, Russia (Ukraine) in the 19th Century

Historic B&W photos of Kiev, Russia (Ukraine) in the 19th Century

During the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century, Kiev became an important trade and transportation centre of the Russian Empire, specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and on the Dnieper river. By 1900, the city had also become a significant industrial centre, having a population of 250,000. Landmarks of that period include the railway infrastructure, the…
Historic B&W photos of Riga, Russia (Latvia) late 19th Century

Historic B&W photos of Riga, Russia (Latvia) late 19th Century

During many centuries of war and changes of power in the Baltic, and despite demographic changes, the Baltic Germans in Riga had maintained a dominant position. By 1867 Riga’s population was 42.9% German. Riga employed German as its official language of administration until the installation of Russian in 1891 as the official language in the Baltic provinces, as part of…
Historic B&W photos of Paris, France, late 19th Century

Historic B&W photos of Paris, France, late 19th Century

Late in the 19th century, Paris hosted two major international expositions: the 1889 Universal Exposition, was held to mark the centennial of the French Revolution and featured the new Eiffel Tower; and the 1900 Universal Exposition, which gave Paris the Pont Alexandre III, the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais and the first Paris Métro line. Paris became the laboratory of…
Historic B&W photos of Rome, Italy (19th Century)

Historic B&W photos of Rome, Italy (19th Century)

In 1861 Rome was declared capital of Italy even though it was still under the Pope’s control. During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States were under French protection, thanks to the foreign policy of Napoleon III. It was only when this was lifted in 1870, owing to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, that Italian troops were…
Historic B&W photos of Warsaw under Russian Partition in the 19th century

Historic B&W photos of Warsaw under Russian Partition in the 19th century

Partitions of Poland were a series of three partitions that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves…
Historic B&W photos of Bosnia in 19th Century

Historic B&W photos of Bosnia in 19th Century

Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Three decades later, in 1908, Austria-Hungary provoked the Bosnian crisis by formally annexing the occupied zone, establishing the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the joint control of Austria and Hungary.
Historic B&W photos of Hanover, Germany (19th century)

Historic B&W photos of Hanover, Germany (19th century)

From 1868 to 1946 Hanover was the capital of the Prussian Province. For Hanover’s industry, however, the new connection with Prussia meant an improvement in business. The introduction of free trade promoted economic growth, and led to the recovery of the Gründerzeit (founders’ era). Between 1871 and 1912 Hanover’s population grew from 87,600 to 313,400. In 1872 the first horse…
Historic B&W photos of Brussels, Belgium in the 19th Century

Historic B&W photos of Brussels, Belgium in the 19th Century

In 1830, the Belgian revolution took place in Brussels after a performance of Auber’s opera La Muette de Portici at the La Monnaie theatre. Brussels became the capital and seat of government of the new nation. South Brabant was renamed simply Brabant, with Brussels as its capital. On 21 July 1831, Leopold I, the first King of the Belgians, ascended…