1800s

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Hannover, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Hannover, Germany (1890s)

After Napoleon imposed the Convention of Artlenburg (Convention of the Elbe) on 5 July 1803, about 35,000 French soldiers occupied Hanover. The Convention also required disbanding the army of Hanover. However, George III did not recognise the Convention of the Elbe. This resulted in a great number of soldiers from Hanover eventually emigrating to Great Britain, where the King’s German…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Bolton Abbey, England (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Bolton Abbey, England (1890s)

The monastery was founded at Embsay in 1120. Led by a prior, Bolton Abbey was technically a priory, despite its name. It was founded in 1154 by the Augustinian order, on the banks of the River Wharfe. The land at Bolton, as well as other resources, were given to the order by Lady Alice de Romille of Skipton Castle in…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Baden, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Baden, Germany (1890s)

The margraves of Baden originated from the House of Zähringen. Baden is named after the margraves’ residence, Hohenbaden Castle in Baden-Baden. Hermann II of Baden first claimed the title of Margrave of Baden in 1112. A united Margraviate of Baden existed from this time until 1535, when it was split into the two Margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. Following a…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Upper Bavaria, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Upper Bavaria, Germany (1890s)

After the founding of the Kingdom of Bavaria the state was totally reorganised and, in 1808, divided into 15 administrative districts (Regierungsbezirke (singular Regierungsbezirk)), in Bavaria called (Kreise (singular Kreis)). They were created in the fashion of the French departements, quite even in size and population, and named after their main rivers. In the following years, due to territorial changes…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Unterwald, Switzerland (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Unterwald, Switzerland (1890s)

The name Unterwalden is first recorded in 1304, as the translation of Latin inter silvas, which together with in intramontanis was the name for monastery possessions in the area. In 1291, Rudolf I of Germany purchased the estates at Stans, Alpnach and Giswil. From 1304, the local bailiffs used their own seal. In 1309, Henry VII confirmed the imperial immediacy…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Alsace Lorraine, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Alsace Lorraine, Germany (1890s)

In 1871, the newly created German Empire’s demand for Alsace from France after its victory in the Franco-Prussian War was not simply a punitive measure. The transfer was controversial even among the Germans: The German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, was initially opposed to it, as he thought (correctly) it would engender permanent French enmity toward Germany. Some German industrialists did…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Nuremberg, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Nuremberg, Germany (1890s)

After the Thirty Years’ War, Nuremberg attempted to remain detached from external affairs, but contributions were demanded for the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War and restrictions of imports and exports deprived the city of many markets for its manufactures. The Bavarian elector, Charles Theodore, appropriated part of the land obtained by the city during the…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Lucerne, Switzerland (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Lucerne, Switzerland (1890s)

It was during the latter part of the 19th century that Lucerne became a popular destination for artists, royalty and others to escape to. The German composer Richard Wagner established a residence at Tribschen in 1866 from which he lived and worked. The city was then boosted by a visit by Queen Victoria to the city in 1868, during which…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of the Isle of Rugen, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of the Isle of Rugen, Germany (1890s)

After the death of the last Slav prince, Wizlaw III, in 1325, the principality was acquired by Pomerania-Wolgast as a consequence of the 1321 inheritance agreement (Erbverbrüderung), and from 1368/72–1451 was part of the estate of a branch line, the House of Barth. This state of affairs, together with the disputes over the Danish throne that occurred at that time,…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Towns in Wales (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Towns in Wales (1890s)

Prior to the industrial revolution in Wales there were small-scale industries scattered throughout Wales. These ranged from those connected to agriculture, such as milling and the manufacture of woollen textiles, through to mining and quarrying. Agriculture remained the dominant source of wealth. The emerging industrial period saw the development of copper smelting in the Swansea area. With access to local…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Edinburgh, Scotland (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Edinburgh, Scotland (1890s)

Despite an enduring myth to the contrary, Edinburgh became an industrial centre with its traditional industries of printing, brewing and distilling continuing to grow in the 19th century and joined by new industries such as rubber works, engineering works and others. By 1821, Edinburgh had been overtaken by Glasgow as Scotland’s largest city. The city centre between Princes Street and…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Bromberg (Bydgoszcz), Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Bromberg (Bydgoszcz), Germany (1890s)

In 1772, in the First Partition of Poland, the town was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia as Bromberg and incorporated into the Netze District in the newly established province of West Prussia. At the time, the town was seriously depressed and semi-derelict. Under Frederick the Great the town revived, notably with the construction of a canal from Bromberg to…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of the Riesengebirge, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of the Riesengebirge, Germany (1890s)

The modern names of Krkonoše (Czech), Riesengebirge (German) and Karkonosze (Polish) became widely accepted only in the 19th century. The range is also often referred to in English as the “Giant Mountains”. The Czech name “Krkonoše” is first mentioned (in the singular, as “Krkonoš”) in a 1492 record of the division of the Manor of Štěpanice into two parts. The…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Westphalia, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Westphalia, Germany (1890s)

After the defeat of the Prussian Army by the French at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 made the easternmost portion of today’s Westphalia part of the French client Kingdom of Westphalia until 1813, when the kingdom was dissolved by the Russians. While this state shared its name with the historical region, it only contained a…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of County Dublin, Ireland (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of County Dublin, Ireland (1890s)

Despite harsh penal laws and unfavourable trade restrictions imposed upon Ireland, Dublin flourished in the 18th century. The Georgian buildings which still define much of Dublin’s architectural landscape to this day were mostly built over a 50-year period spanning from about 1750 to 1800. Bodies such as the Wide Streets Commission completely reshaped the city, demolishing most of medieval Dublin…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Marienburg (Malbork), Prussia (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Marienburg (Malbork), Prussia (1890s)

It was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and became part of the newly established Province of West Prussia the following year. Prussians liquidated the municipal government and replaced it with new Prussian-appointed administration. In the early 19th century, Prussian authorities acknowledged the town’s Polish-speaking community, ensuring that priests could deliver the…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Bath, England (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Bath, England (1890s)

In the early 18th century, Bath acquired its first purpose-built theatre, the Old Orchard Street Theatre. It was rebuilt as the Theatre Royal, along with the Grand Pump Room attached to the Roman Baths and assembly rooms. Master of ceremonies Beau Nash, who presided over the city’s social life from 1705 until his death in 1761, drew up a code…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Stettin, Germany (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Stettin, Germany (1890s)

Stettin developed into a major Prussian port and became part of the German Empire in 1871. While most of the province retained its agrarian character, Stettin was industrialised, and its population rose from 27,000 in 1813 to 210,000 in 1900 and 255,500 in 1925. Major industries that flourished in Stettin from 1840 were shipbuilding, chemical and food industries, and machinery…
Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Valais, Switzerland (1890s)

Vintage: Historic B&W photos of Valais, Switzerland (1890s)

In the early 17th century, the aristocratic governors of the districts in the Upper Valais pressured the prince-bishop of Sion to abdicate secular power, which was achieved temporarily in 1613 and then permanently in 1634, when the country became the federal Republic of the Seven Tithings under the rule of a Landeshauptmann. The republic in its original form existed until…