Arno Rafael Minkkinen is a Finnish American photographer, educator, curator, and writer with over two hundred one-person and group exhibitions at galleries and museums worldwide. He was born in Helsinki in 1945 and emigrated to the United States in 1951. A graduate of Wagner College with a BA in English Literature, he began taking self-portraits in 1970 while working as an advertising copywriter on Madison Avenue in New York. Studying later with Harry Callahan and Aaron Siskind at Rhode Island School of Design, he earned his MFA degree in photography in 1974. Over the past four decades, Minkkinen has been primarily engaged as a teacher, curator, and writer while continuing to devote his photographic research and energies to the self-portrait: unmanipulated images of the naked human figure in natural and urban landscapes.